4 How important is long-term memory, anyway？4 How important is long-term memory, anyway？6 How important is long-term memory, anyway？6 How important is long-term memory, anyway？How important is long-term memory, anyway？Part II: Personal Memory Systems More BroadlyAugmenting Long-term Memory2020-09-24Journal
Simon estimated chess masters learn between 25,000 and 100,000 of these chunks during their training, and that learning the chunks was a key element in becoming a first-rate chess player. Such players really see chess positions very differently from beginners.
Why does learning to recognize and reason about such chunks help so much in developing expertise? Here's a speculative, informal model – as far as I know, it hasn't been validated by cognitive scientists, so don't take it too seriously. I'll describe it in the context of mathematics, instead of chess, since mathematics is an area where I have experience talking with people at all ranges of ability, from beginners to accomplished professional mathematicians.