"Every perception is to some degree an act of creation, and every act of memory is to some degree an act of imagination."
-- Gerald Edelman, Second Nature: Brain Science and Human Knowledge
The Decline from 1800 until 19491 Chapter 6: The Big Cycle of China and Its Currency2020-10-09Journal1 2 
\[14\] That severe Big Cycle decline in which all the major strengths were in mutually reinforcing declines continued from around 1840 until 1949. The end of World War II in 1945 led to the repatriation of most foreigners in China (except for Hong Kong and Taiwan) and a civil war to determine how the wealth and power would be divided—i.e., a war between the communists or the capitalists—on the Chinese mainland. This over 100-year-long period of decline, which the Chinese call the “Century of Humiliation,” was a classic case of the archetypical Big Cycle decline occurring due to a number of the classic weaknesses existing, leading to mutually and self-reinforcing declines adding up to the big decline. It was followed by the classic case of a Big Cycle upswing in which the new leader wins control, consolidates power, and begins building the basic structures that are passed onto subsequent generations, who build on their predecessors’ accomplishments.