2 here2 here4 here4 herehereChapter 6: The Big Cycle of China and Its Currency2020-10-09Journal4 here2 here
\[8\] If you haven’t read The Art of War I suggest you read it to get a flavor for what I am referring to.
\[9\] The China historian John Fairbank, in his excellent book The Chinese World Order, described relations with non-Chinese states as follows: “The graded and concentric hierarchy of China’s foreign relations included peoples and countries which we may group into three main zones: first, the Sinic Zone, consisting of the most nearby and culturally similar tributaries, Korea and Vietnam, parts of which had anciently been ruled within the Chinese empire, and also the consisting of the most nearby and culturally similar tributaries, Korea and Vietnam, the Ryukyu Islands, and, at brief times, Japan. Secondly, the Inner Asian Zone, consisting of tributary tribes and states of the nomadic or seminomadic peoples of Inner Asia, who were not only ethnically and culturally non-Chinese but were also outside or on the fringes of the Chinese cultural area, even though sometimes pressing upon the Great Wall frontier. Third, the Outer Zone, consisting of the ‘outer barbarians’ (wai-i) generally, at further distance over land or sea, including eventually Japan and other states of Southeast and South Asia and Europe that were supposed to send tribute when trading.”