"Every perception is to some degree an act of creation, and every act of memory is to some degree an act of imagination."

-- Gerald Edelman, Second Nature: Brain Science and Human Knowledge
3 The Positions the Americans and Chinese Are InThe Trade-Economic WarThe Positions the Americans and Chinese Are InChapter 7: US-China Relations and Wars2020-10-18JournalHistory has taught us that there are five major types of wars—1) trade/economic wars, 2) technology wars, 3) geopolitical wars, 4) capital wars, and 5) military wars—that need to be considered. While all sensible people wish that these “wars” weren’t occurring and that cooperation was occurring in their places, we must be practical in recognizing that they exist, and we should use past cases in history and our understandings of actual developments as they are taking place to think about what is most likely to happen next and how to deal with it well.  We see them transpiring in various degrees of play now.  They should not be mistaken as individual conflicts but rather recognized as interrelated conflicts that are extensions of one bigger evolving conflict.  In watching them transpire we need to observe and try to understand each side’s strategic goals—e.g., are they trying to hasten a conflict (which some Americans think is best for the US because time is on China’s side because China is growing its strengths at a faster pace) or are they trying to ease the conflicts (because they believe that they would be better off if there is no war)?  In order to prevent these from escalating out of control, it will be important for leaders of both countries to be clear about what the “red lines” and “trip wires” are that signal changes in the seriousness of the conflict.  Let’s now take a look at these wars with the lessons from history and the principles they provide in mind. Continue reading…