"Every perception is to some degree an act of creation, and every act of memory is to some degree an act of imagination."
-- Gerald Edelman, Second Nature: Brain Science and Human Knowledge
3 Phase 1, 1949 to 1976: The Mao Phase of Building the Foundation1 As is classic in all cycles, internal political challenges to Mao’s leadership and ideology arose.Chapter 6: The Big Cycle of China and Its Currency2020-10-09Journal1 As is classic in all cycles, internal political challenges to Mao’s leadership and ideology arose.
As is classic in all cycles, internal political challenges to Mao’s leadership and ideology arose. These internal political battles had traditionally been extremely brutal and risky for the supreme leader. As mentioned earlier, I was told by an esteemed Chinese scholar that 37% of Chinese emperors died in office from unnatural causes and about half of these were because of people close to the emperor.
In 1964 Khrushchev was overthrown by a coup in Russia, and political and ideological struggles were on Mao’s mind (and everyone else’s). Mao’s Legalist and Marxist inclinations made him a brutal fighter for power and for the proletariat, so to deal with this threat to his power Mao fostered a political revolution to “purify class ranks” called the Cultural Revolution. It was to purge political and ideological opponents and to reinforce “Mao Zedong Thought.” It went from 1966 until 1976, though was most violent roughly between 1966 and 1969. Mao won the political/ideological battle, purging his rival Lin Biao who was accused of a botched coup against Mao; he died in a plane crash and “Mao Zedong Thought” was written into the constitution. The Cultural Revolution curtailed education and cost or damaged millions of lives.\[17\] These conditions further undermined education and slowed advances in the Chinese economy, especially in the late 1960s. By the early 1970s the situation began to stabilize under the operational leadership of Premier Zhou Enlai, and the economy grew at around 6% per year. In 1969 there was a border war between China and the Soviet Union, which wiped out a Chinese battalion. During this period there was also a political struggle between “the Gang of Four” hard-core Maoists and moderates who favored reforms (most importantly Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping).
1 As is classic in all cycles, internal political challenges to Mao’s leadership and ideology arose.